Study Guide Chapter 6

1)      According to information processing theory, which component of the memory system did Verona Bishop’s students first use during the 3-second experiment?

A. Sensory register

2)      Verona Bishop asks her students, “Imagine that you could keep everything that ever entered your mind.  What would that be like?”  One student responded, “You’d be a genius!”  Another responds, “You’d go crazy!”  Why does Ms. Bishop side with the second student?

B. There is no correlation between genius and paying attention to environmental clues

3)      During the 3 second memory experiment. Verona Bishop asks her students to recall things not associated with the overhead information she presented.  What types of memory are the students using when they recall smells, sounds, and details of the classroom and the people in it?

A. Semantic memory

4)      Cheryl, one of Verona Bishop’s students, recalled seeing the word learning ko n the overhead screen, even though it was not there.  How does Ms. Bishop explain this phenomenon?

C. Learning and memory, a word that was actually presented, are closely related and most likely stored closely together in memory.  When one is recalled, so is the other.

5)      Consider that some of Verona Bishop’s students attempted to memorize the information on the overhead screen in a random fashion. Which of the following learning strategies are they using?

A. Free-recalling learning.

6)      Verona Bishop summarizes her experiment by telling her students that they will forget some details of the experiment but remember others. Why is this so?

A. According to levels of processing theory, we tend to retain information that has been subject to thorough processing.  If the students gave meaning to the information, it is likely to be remembered.

7)      Research on the brain say that we use many different parts of are brains for different things.  For a person that is bilingual, they use one part of their brain to speak in one language and usually another part of their brain to speak the other language.  We have also learned that the amount of stimulation a child has as an infant is related to higher learning and memory, by the neural connections that a child has.  Connections are important as an infant and later on in life. The brain should no longer be looked at as something that needs to be filled but as someplace where the more connections the better the brain can process, store and organize itself.  It is also important to note that as a person gains knowledge the brain becomes more efficient.  All of these factors point to teaching in a more thematic, integrated strategies, with higher order thinking, and flexible thinking instead of a memorization and linear teaching that we have grown accustomed to.

8)      Some memory strategies that I can teach my students are:

·         to underline key terms and only key terms.  Actually teaching students to underline instead of just telling them to underline the key terms. 

·        Another thing that I can do is to take notes.

·        Practice rehearsing the information they receive mentally

·        Practice in general, all practice will help retain learning

·        Teach imagery, having students think of an image to go with a concept

·        Teach mnemonics to help students remember concepts

·        Teach students questioning techniques

1. Sperling’s study involving the recall of 12 letters projected briefly on a screen illustrates the limitations of which of the following memory areas?

            B. Short term memory

2.Match the following types of memory with their definitions.

Episodic Memory – part of long term memory that stores images of personal experiences.

Semantic Memory – mental networks of related concepts associated with new information.

            Procedural memory – type of memory associated with automaticity

3. Which of the following teaching strategies would be least effective in reducing retroactive inhibition?

            b. Teach one concept thoroughly before introducing another.

4. Provide an example of how someone develops automaticity.

Teaching how to add single digit numbers can be taught in a few days but having children practice until no thought is needed to recall what 2 +2 is automaticity.  A person develops automaticity in this aspect by practicing out load, or written 2 + 2 or any other single digit until the answer is not thought about, it is just automatically said.

Another example is learning to type on a keyboard.  By learning one key at a time and practicing that key over and over.  After learning each key on the keyboard and practicing hitting each one in different orders.  One can type words, sentences, and papers without thinking about where the keys on the keyboard are.

5. Match each type of verbal learning skill with its example.

            Paired associate learning – learning U.S. States and capitols.

            Serial learning – memorizing the organs of the body

            Free recalling learning – learning about major organs of the body.

6. Give several examples of mnemonics.


            May I have a cup of coffee?

            SOH - CAH - TOA  sin = opp/hyp, cos = adj/hyp, tan = opp/adj

            King Henry Died (mon, tues,…) drinking chocolate milk

Kilo – Hecta – Deca – (meter, liter, gram) – deci – centi – milli

            Sam’s Horse must eat oats – Superior – Heron – Michigan – Eerie – Ontario

            I am a person. – Indian, Atlantic, artic, pacific

My very educated mother just served us nine pizzas – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranium, Neptune, Pluto

7. Which of the following study strategies is associated with note-taking?

            A. outlining and mapping          

8. What is the name given to the pre-learning activities and techniques that orient students to new material?

            D. Advanced organizer         

9. Give three examples of how a teacher can make learning relevant to students by activating prior knowledge.

·        Giving out advanced organizers which are an initial statement about a subject that is to learned and it also provides a structure to organize the new information.

·        Using analogies to relate information that is going to be learned to information that is already known to the student

·        By asking students to relate new information to their own lives, or ask students to make connections between an old idea with the new information a teacher is elaborating and helping students learn the new information

10. How does organizing information enhance learning?

Organizing information enhances learning by helping make the information meaningful.  It also helps to remember the information because their will be more connections to the information.  Visual representations of organized material will help students learn also.  A skeletal version new concepts and having students fill in the information as it is given will give students a chance to take notes, see the information visually and have the information in an organized format which will help the student learn.  Make sure that this information can be little information and can be processed to enhance learning instead of hinder it.