Chapter 13 Study Guide

Part I: Planning and objectives

1. Describe and provide examples of how to follow the backwards design process to planning. Backwards planning is starting out with very broad goals and moving towards simpler goals.  For example a teacher of mathematics will start out by making a list of main objectives for the whole year.  In each one of those main or course objectives a teacher will come up with units to meet each one of the main objectives.  Then with each unit a teacher will focus on objectives for each day in the unit or each specific unit. 

2. Describe the processes involved in planning courses, units, and lessons.   One of the most important things that a teacher can do in the planning process is to set long, middle or unit and short or lesson term goals and objectives. The long term goals should be pretty broad with the middle goals will be a little more specific and the short term goals will be very specific. These all should happen before the students walk in the classroom the first day.  Along with the goals an assessment should be planned for each unit objective.  There should also be assessments on your lessons.  This is not necessarily a test it means that a teacher should be able to asses through homework or just by walking around.  This lesson assessment does not have to be planned for every lesson the whole year but should be planned in advance. In planning a course there will always be a specific time limit that the course will be done by.  Along with the course time frame each unit should have a time frame in which it needs to get done by and last but not least each lesson plan should have a time frame in which it needs to be taught.  Of course these time frames should be flexible but should also be kept as a reminder on how long that you have for each unit.

3. Explain the relationship among planning, assessment and instruction.   There are many relationships between planning, assessment and instruction.   All three rely on each other a intentional teacher cannot do just two of the three successfully they must do all three successfully.  For example Mr. Sulivan did not relate all three of these.  He planned fun instruction but his assessment did not relate to his planning or instruction. Planning is related to assessment because before you know what you are going to assess you need a plan.  Also before you know what to do in your instruction you have to plan.  Also you need to look at your instruction to help assess,  If you plan to instruct and test one thing but in your instruction you end up doing another thing your assessment should be changed accordingly.

4. Explain the difference between teaching and learning objectives.  A teaching objective states clearly what a student is expected to learn through instruction while a learning objective are the behaviors that students are expected to show at the end of a lesson.  So the main difference is that a teaching objective is what a student should learn and a learning objective is behaviors that a student will exhibit. 

5. Explain the purpose of each of the parts of a behavioral objective (namely: condition, performance, and criterion). Give an example of a behavioral objective that uses each of these parts and identify each of these parts.   The condition in a behavioral objective is to state the conditions under which the learning will b e assessed. For example in a two page typed paper students will…   The performance is usually a action verb such as write, identify or match.  Last is the criterion or what the student must have correct or what the student must do to succeed.  For example… have all 50 states and where they are located memorize.

6. Choose a topic for a course: Exponential relationships in an 8th grade mathematics

Do a task analysis for an activity in this course.  An activity in this course would be to compare different exponential graphs by first graphing it on a calculator and then drawing out the graphs.
            Prerequisite skills:            Students will
                                                - Know what the coordinate graph is
                                                - Know what an exponential equation looks like
                                                - Be able to graph an equation
                                                - Know how to graphs coordinate points on a coordinate graph
                                                - Be able to turn an equation from 4x+2y = 8 to y = 4-2x
                                                - Multiply, divide, add and subtract
            Component skills           Students will
                                                - Learn where the y=x equation lies on the coordinate graph
                                                - Learn how to make a table of values

- Learn how to graph an equation on a calculator then transfer the graph to a paper.

- Learn how to adjust the grids on the calculator

- Learn how to find where x=0

The component skills will be assembled into the final skill by learning where how to transfer the graph on their calculator to their paper by finding where x=0 and comparing one equation at a time to y=x the student should be able to compare the graphs of many equations. 

Using this topic, outline a backward planning approach: broad course goal, example unit objectives, example lesson objectives related to 1 or 2 of unit objectives.

Course (# of weeks)

Unit (# of days)


Algebra 8

Exponential graphs 6

Look for exponential growth or decay

Geometry 4

Pythagorean Theorem 10

Determine growth and decay factors in exponential growth

Numbers and Patterns 6

Quadratic functions and Equations 5

Represent exponential patterns in tables, graphs and equations

Data and Analysis 6

Solving linear equations 8

Compare graphs of exponential growth and decay and linear graphs

Measurement 4

Order of Operations 4

Use tables graphs to solve exponential growth and decay


Solving simple quadratic equations 6

Use exponential equations to solve problems

*Note one day extra for whatever needs to be worked on and for quiz.

Develop a behavior content matrix for a lesson or unit in this course, using simple behavioral cognitive & affective objectives

Type of Objective

Exponential growth and Decay

Knowledge (cognitive)

Show a graph of exponential growth and one of exponential decay

Comprehension (cognitive)

Explain the differences between exponential growth and decay

Application (cognitive)

Use an exponential table to make a graph of an exponential function

Analysis (cognitive)

Compare the similarities and differences of exponential growth, exponential        decay and a linear graph

Synthesis (cognitive)


Evaluation (cognitive)

Use tables, graphs and exponential equations to solve problems.

Receiving (affective)

Recognize an exponential function on a graph, in a table and as an equation

Responding (affective)

Select a exponential function out of different functions represented on a graph

Valuing (affective)

Justify why the function you picked is an exponential function

Organizing (affective)


Internalizing (affective)

Practice using exponential functions in real world applications